This article will attempt
to describe a “Theory of Everything” that draws a single unbroken thread through
many unexplained physical phenomenon. It will start with the very structure of
space and expand to provide possible explanations for the matter/energy
relationship, anti-matter, Planck’s constant, hydrogen spectra, atomic
structure, magnetism, electrostatic force, gravity, dark energy, time-dialation,
strong force, mass, inertia, and atomic chemical properties. This theory is only
described here as a high level summary and each paragraph deserves a more
detailed treatment and justification, so this is just a start. This theory
generally summarizes ideas that I have previously posted on the usenet. These
can be found by searching for firstname.lastname@example.org.
If you would like a
short summary of the theory, you can see my shorter summary
short summary of the theory.
I have also written papers in a scientific format. I have written 4 papers on Gravity, the Higgs Particle, the God Computer and the Cubic Atomic Model.
Click here to view my science papers
So here goes …
building blocks of the universe consist only of the positron and electron. Bound
together, these form a neutral neutrino-like particle. This particle fills all
of empty space and makes up the aether of empty space. It can be thought of as a
matrix of alternating protons and electrons and forms a crystal structure like
salt (NaCl). Electromagnetic waves travel through the crystal neutrino sea.
See the article
"What is the aether?"
See the article "What is space and how does it work"
commonly assumed that the existence of the aether was disproved by the
Michelson-Morley interferometer experiments (MMX). However, nothing could be
further from the truth. At best, the results were inconclusive. More precise
results from work done by Dayton Miller on the MMX now appear to correlate with
recent data from the COBE cosmic backround radiation satellite.
See Confirmation of Aether
drift direction from COBE CMBR/Dayton Miller.
Even today, the question of an aether is far
from dead in even mainstream science. There have been some recent results in
2005 pointing to non-null results for MMX type experiments from rotating
See Non-Null results of recent MMX type
Due to the almost
completely neutral nature of the neutrino sea, we do not detect it. We can only
detect extra positrons and electrons which do not belong to neutrino sea. If you
send a sufficiently high energy electromagnetic wave (gamma ray) though the
aether, you can break apart a neutrino and eject an electron from the matrix and
it also ejects a positron. The positron is what anti-matter is. The energy
required to eject a matter/anti-matter pair goes according to E = mc^2 because
there are 2 particles which must be accelerated to the speed of light in order
to break the neutrino bond. The kinetic energy required is 1/2 mv^2 where v is
the velocity of light. The energy of the 2 particles (matter/anti-matter) added
up produce the formula E=mc^2. The act of breaking the neutrino bond consumes
all of the kinetic energy leaving the newly freed particles with zero resulting
the article "What Does E=mc^2 Really Mean"
We have described the positron, electron and
neutron. But what is a proton? A proton is really just a combination of a
neutron and a positron. We normally think of the proton as the opposite of an
electron, but this is not the case. Only the positron is the opposite of the
electron. The proton is a composite object containing 2 positrions and an
electron. This explains why experiments have shown 3 point like objects inside
of the proton, but nothing inside of an electron which is truly a fundamental
particle. The commonly accepted theory is that protons and neutrons are composed
of 3 quarks which carry fractional 1/3 charges. This is entirely unnecessary
because it is much easier to think of everything as being composed of only whole
charge positrons and electrons. This is supported by radioactive decay where a
proton does in fact decay into a neutron and a proton.
See the article Quarks do not
exist. Everything is made up of positrons and electrons
Since electromagnetic waves travel through the
aether, the aether determines a fundamental unit of length and of energy. The
size of the aether particle determines the smallest possible dimension. Nothing
which moves can move in a unit which is smaller than the dimension of the aether
particle. Since distance is quantized, this also quantizes the amount of energy
that can be stored in the aether. The aether acts as if it were attached with
tiny springs and the energy is stored in the springs when they are stretched or
compressed. Since distance comes in fixed amounts, the amount of energy stored
in the springs also comes in fixed amounts.
This fixed amount of energy
expresses itself in Planck’s constant. All electromagnetic energy must come in
some fixed multiple of Planck’s constant and is a direct consequence of the
dimensions of the aether particle. Planck’s constant itself fundamentally
expresses the minimum amount of energy contained In a single electromagnetic
wave cycle of any frequency. The amplitude of a wave can be greater by some
multiple of Planck’s constant, but can never be less.
See article "What does planck's
constant really mean"
dimension of an aether particle also controls the position of an electron around
a proton. An electron’s distance can only exist as multiples of the size of the
aether particle. The electrostatic force is proportional to 1/r^2 where r is the
width of an aether particle. The Rydberg constant ( R ) represents the amount of
energy an electron has when it is separated from a proton by 1 aether particle.
The energy for positions further away trivally follows the equation E = R/n^2
where n represents any integer since the distance can only come in whole integer
values. The Balmer formula follows from this relationship and explains the
spectra of the hydrogen atom.
See Predicting the spectra of hydrogen
This can also be extended to calulate the spectra of other atoms like helium. This is something that current theory cannot do because it is considered a complex "multi-body" problem. However, if the electrons are not orbiting, but instead just bouncing fixed distances away from the nucleus, then the spectra should be calculated using Rydberg-like formulas.
See article "Calculating the spectra of helium"
The spectra is only generated while a hydrogen
atom is ionized and the path of the electron is a random vertical movement from
level to level around the proton like a jumping bean. It emits electromagnetic
radiation as long as there is enough energy to ionize the electron. When there
isn’t enough energy to ionize the electron, it falls back to the center of the
atom as is classically predicted. At this point, the proton and electron are
statically bound together like two magnets. The electron is not moving around
the proton in any manner in the ground state which explains why electrons do not
emit electromagnetic energy in the ground state. All electrons fall back to the
center of the atom in the ground state. When an electron falls back onto an
atom, it generates light electromagnetic energy.
See How light it is
generated by atoms
also mediates the magnetic force. The aether particles have a small dipole which
causes one side to be slightly positive and the other to be negative. This
causes them to tend to line up positive facing negative. Moving electric charges
tend to line up the aether particles in a direction which aligns with the
direction of the moving electric charge. Whereever we see an alignment of the
aether particles, we see magnetic lines of force. Charges are deflected because they have to pass through the positive and negative charges of these dipoles and they are preferentially attracted to one of these charges. This causes the charge to change direction and is the fundamental physical cause fo the magnetic force. This unites the
magnetic force with the electrostatic force.
See How the magnetic field works
One significant area where
science has misunderstood the magnetic field, is the orientation of the magnetic
field which is conventionally shown running from pole to pole. This view is
incorrect because if we think of a magnet as being the same as a nail which has
a coil of wire wrapped around it, the electrons are circling the axis of the
nail and should be creating magnetic field lines which align with the loops of
the wire. This is 90 degress way from the conventionally defined field. If we
think of magnetic fields using this new convention, then the action of magnets
on charged particles becomes much more intuitive.
See article "Did science get
the direction of the magnetic field wrong?"
The basic electrostatic force between protons
and electrons is caused by protons and electrons oscillating out of phase.
Particles which oscillate in phase, repel while particles that oscillate out of
phase attract. The oscillation of the particles is caused by random thermal
energy which makes the particles ring like bells at a specific frequency and
phase. These oscillations are carried by the aether out through space and are
the fundamental cause of electrostatic attraction.
See article "What causes the electrostatic force"
The oscillation which is just the resonant frequency of positrons and electrons sets the smallest amount of time for anything in the universe to change state. So there is a smallest dimension of space and there is a smallest dimension of time. This creates a universal galactic "clock" tick like the clock in a computer. This defines time and we can ask if we can go back in time and solve the grandfather paradox.
See article "What is time?"
proton and electron are not symmetric. The protons are typically bound to a
material while the electrons are relatively free to wander. The asymmetry leads
to situation where a typical mass will have more protons than electrons, or will
somehow have a slightly positive charge. This slight charge imbalance added up
over the mass of the Earth makes for a very large positive charge field coming
from the Earth and other massive objects. This positive field pulls on any
neutral matter like a charged balloon attracts neutrally charged pieces of
paper. This causes any uncharged matter to stick to the Earth like a bad case of
static cling. This is the fundamental cause of gravity. Gravity is nothing more
than a strong electrostatic field and therefore this unites the electrostatic
and gravity force.
See article "What is Gravity?"
See article "Is Gravity Just the Electrostatic Force?"
It is also interesting why orbits are stable even when collisions occur.
See article: How are gravitational orbits maintained
The evidence for the electrostatic field comes
from direct measurements of the field at 120 volts/meter at ground level and the
300,000 volt difference between the Earth and space. Viewing the Earth as a
positively charged ball would also explain why charge separation occurs in
thunderclouds whereby the negative charges are attracted to the bottom of the
cloud while the positive charges are attracted to the top.
charge separation may explain the origin of Earth’s magnetic field. As charges
are separated in the atmosphere, they are driven at different speeds and
directions in the upper and lower atmosphere. These unbalanced charges act as
moving charge masses which generate their own magnetic field. Charts of movement
and direction of the Earth’s local magnetic field match charts of the wind
currents on the Earth. This magnetic field caused by the atmospheric jump starts
the main magnetic field in the iron core of the spinning Earth. In this way, the
primary direction of the North/South poles is determined by the overall sum of
the atmospheric currents. A reversal of the poles could just be a matter of a
change in the weather to drive the poles in the opposite direction.
See article "Origin of
Earth's Magnetic Field"
gravity is caused by an overall positive electrostatic charge on an object, this
would mean that all astronomical objects like the Earth and Moon would be
positively charged. They do not repel each other since most of the mass
(99.999999999%) of astronomical objects still neutrally charged. The neutrally
charged matter is still attracted to any strong electrostatic force. The
attraction of the neutrally charged matter overwhelms the repulsion created by
the tiny amount of charged matter. So similarly charged objects, do not
necessarily repel. The net force is the result of the attraction of the neutral
matter versus the repelling of the similarly charged matter. So the Earth and
Moon can both be net positively charged, but still attract.
intergalactic scales, the net positive charge of all objects may not get
cancelled out by the presence of neutral matter because at this scale, galaxies
begin to look like one huge positively charged particle and they repel each
other at intergalactic distances. This may explain why matter appears to repel
each other at this scale and form into bubbles and sheets from a sort of
anti-gravity effect which has been described as the dark energy.
electrostatic gravitational force bears down on all normal matter, but it also
affects the aether since the aether is made up of dipoles which are attracted to
the electrostatic charge of the Earth. This causes the aether to build up much
denser closer to the Earth than farther away. It does this in a manner which is
similar to how the atmosphere is denser towards the ground. The aether may act
exactly like the atmosphere in that it is normally dragged along with the Earth
and if you are in a room with no air movement, the aether is still as well. This
could explain the null results of the Michelson-Morely experiment which is used
to disprove the existence of the aether but really only showed that the aether
was not moving.
The gravitational compression of the aether may also
occur futher out in the solar system and galaxies. This causes areas of high
gravitation to actually contain more aether than areas which do not have
gravitational sources. This effectively increases the amount of mass contained
in the solar system and the galaxy. This may explain 'dark mass' as the extra
mass needed to keep galaxies in the formations that we see.
gravitational effect of the aether may also explain 'dark energy' which appears
to push galaxies out into forming bubbles and sheet-like structures. The reason
why this occurs is that aether is the densest substance in the universe, so it
wants to gravitationally clump together. It clumps together forming huge bubbles
of pure aether and it pushes all other real matter (which is less dense) out to
the edge like a soap bubble.
See article "Dark matter and dark energy are cause only
by gravity and the boyancy effect"
The changing aether density also produces time
dilation effects. Clocks in a higher density aether, run slower than clocks in a
lighter density aether. The reason for this is that every activity (like atoms
resonating in an atomic clock) is mediated by the aether and if there are more
aether particles between point A and point B, it takes longer for any effect
from point A to reach point B simply because it has to go past more particles.
So this explains why clocks run slower on the Earth, than they do in orbit. The
rate that a mechanical clock runs is a function of the density of the aether
that it is running in. This also explains the bending of light around massive
objects since the density changes produce a simple refraction effect through the
article "What causes time dialation?"
Another time dilation effect may also be caused
by an object traveling through the aether. As an object goes faster through the
aether, this also has the effect of putting more particles between any fixed
point A and B. This will also slow down any mechanical clock and may explain the
time dilation effects seen on atomic clocks which are placed in
At the smallest scale, atoms are formed from free electrons and
protons that are not bound into the aether matrix. They also tend to form into
an alternating proton/electron matrix. They tend to form the most compact form
possible but are always an evenly spaced alternating checkerboard matrix of
protons and electrons. The atom is not a compact nucleus containing only protons
and neutrons with the electrons on the outside. Since there is not need to
compress all of the protons into a tiny space, there is not need to have a
“strong” force which keeps the protons together at close range.
normal electrostatic force is sufficient to keep an alternating array of protons
and electrons together. Therefore, the strong and weak forces can be eliminated
as faulty figments of our mistaken view that the nucleus is a compact structure
which only contains protons and neutrons. The view that atom contains a compact
nucleus come from comparatively crude scattering experiments and are a very
indirect measure of the size of the atom and its components.
See article "Why Rutherford
Atoms, protons and
electrons exist within the matrix of the aether, so in order to move, they must
push the aether out of the way. The aether has a slight dipole, so it takes some
energy to separate the aether particles. The amount of energy depends on the
effective size of the particle. A larger sized particle takes more energy. In
the case of a proton and an electron, the effective size of a proton is about
1800 times as large as an electron. This size is proportional to what we call
“mass”, so a proton is about 1800 times as massive as an electron.
we call mass is really a measure of how difficult it is to push an object
through the aether. If we assume that the protons and electrons in atoms are
separated and surrounded by at least 1 aether particle on all sides, then the
total effort required to push an atom through the aether is just the sum of the
efforts required for the protons and electrons that make up the atom. However,
the binding of protons and electrons into neutrons may reduce the effective size
of the pair and thus the mass. This would help explain why atoms have less mass
than their individual components.
When a particle moves, it breaks apart
an aether bond, but as it passes by, the aether bond will reform after the
particle passes. When the bond reforms, it will propel the particle forward with
the same energy it took to separate the aether bond in the first place. This is
like a pea shooting out between two round attracting magnets. Since the energy
is returned back to the particle, it can continue its forward movement by
constantly breaking and reforming aether bonds. This keeps the particle in
motion, once it is put into motion. This is the fundamental cause of inertia.
Since inertia only depends on the total number of particles in an object
and since the force of gravity depends only on the number of proton/electron
pairs which are contained in an object, the force of inertia and the
gravitational force will be proportional to one another. The total number of
particles in an object is generally twice the number of proton/electron pairs
(which form a dipole which is attracted to a charge source). This is the reason
for the linkage between inertial mass and gravitational mass.
chemical properties of the atoms are determined by the geometrical shape of the
atom formed by alternating protons and electrons. This shape also determines the
ionization energy for the electrons in the atom. Electrons which are contained
on the outside of the atom have a lower ionization energy than for those on the
inside of the atom. The particular shape of the outside of the atom determines
how many atoms can be attached. This is more like a tinker-toy model where each
piece only has so many places where pegs can be attached. The atoms physically
touch and mate together when they form chemical compounds.
See the cubic atomic
Read my paper "The Cubic Atomic Model"
In summary, I have
presented radically different solutions to some very serious problems in
physics. In order for any of this to be true would mean that nearly everything
we have learned about physics over the last 100 years is nearly backwards - as
backwards as an Earth centered universe. Physics gets the right answer, but for
the wrong reasons.
See Physics Wrong Turns
That's all folks, have fun with